Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs

Swaminathan, Soumya et.al. (2012) Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205 (Supl.2). S228-S240. ISSN Print: 0022-1899 | Electronic: 1537-6613

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Tuberculosis was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993. Following the declaration and the promotion in 1995 of directly observed treatment short course (DOTS), a cost-effective strategy to contain the tuberculosis epidemic, nearly 7 million lives have been saved compared with the preDOTS era, high cure rates have been achieved in most countries worldwide, and the global incidence of tuberculosis has been in a slow decline since the early 2000s. However, the emergence and spread of multidrugresistant (MDR) tuberculosis, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, and more recently, totally drugresistant tuberculosis pose a threat to global tuberculosis control. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a man-made problem. Laboratory facilities for drug susceptibility testing are inadequate in most tuberculosis-endemic countries, especially in Africa; thus diagnosis is missed, routine surveillance is not implemented, and the actual numbers of global drug-resistant tuberculosis cases have yet to be estimated. This exposes an ominous situation and reveals an urgent need for commitment by national programs to health system improvement because the response to MDR tuberculosis requires strong health services in general. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and XDR tuberculosis greatly complicate patient management within resource-poor national tuberculosis programs, reducing treatment efficacy and increasing the cost of treatment to the extent that it could bankrupt healthcare financing in tuberculosis-endemic areas. Why, despite nearly 20 years of WHO-promoted activity and .12 years of MDR tuberculosis–specific activity, has the country response to the drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic been so ineffectual? The current dilemmas, unanswered questions, operational issues, challenges, and priority needs for global drug resistance screening and surveillance, improved treatment regimens, and management of outcomes and prevention of DR tuberculosis are discussed.

Affiliation: ICMR-National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis ,Current Dilemmas, Unanswered Questions, Challenges, Priority Needs
Subjects: Tuberculosis > Clinical Research
Divisions: Clinical Research
Depositing User: Dr. Rathinasabapati R
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2022 07:37
Last Modified: 02 Sep 2022 07:37
URI: http://eprints.nirt.res.in/id/eprint/1157

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