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Gender and socio-cultural determinants of delay to diagnosis of TB in Bangladesh, India and Malawi

Gosoniu, G D and Ganapathy, S and Kemp, J and Auer, C and Somma, D and Karim, F and Weiss, M G (2008) Gender and socio-cultural determinants of delay to diagnosis of TB in Bangladesh, India and Malawi. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 12 (7). pp. 848-855. ISSN Print: 1027-3719; Online: 1815-7920

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SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in Bangladesh, India and Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To compare the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis of TB for men and women, and to assess socio-cultural and gender-related features of illness explaining diagnostic delay. DESIGN: Semi-structured Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) interviews were administered to 100 or more patients at each site, assessing categories of distress, perceived causes and help seeking. Based on time from initial symptoms to diagnosis of TB, patients were classified with problem delay (>90 days), timely diagnosis (⩽30 days) or moderate delay. EMIC interview data were analysed to explain problem delay. RESULTS: The median interval from symptom onset to diagnosis was longest in India and shortest in Malawi. With adjustment for confounding, female sex (Bangladesh), and status of married woman (India) and housewife (Malawi) were associated with problem delay. Prominent non-specific symptoms—chest pain (Bangladesh) and breathlessness (Malawi)—were also significant. Cough in India, widely associated with TB, was associated with timely diagnosis. Sanitation as a perceived cause linked to poor urban conditions was associated with delayed diagnosis in India. Specific prior help seeking with circuitous referral patterns was identified. CONCLUSION: The study identified gender- and illness-related features of diagnostic delay. Further research distinguishing patient and provider delay is needed.

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Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: tuberculosis; gender; diagnostic delay; cultural epidemiology; DOTS treatment
Subjects: Tuberculosis > Socio Behavioral
Divisions: Social and Behavioural Research
Depositing User: Dr. Rathinasabapati R
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2017 10:37
Last Modified: 13 Jul 2017 11:40

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