HIV and tuberculosis in India

Swaminathan, Soumya and Narendran, G (2008) HIV and tuberculosis in India. Journal of Biosciences, 33 (4). pp. 527-537. ISSN Print:0250-5991; Online: 0973-7138

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The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are diffi cult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography, which has problems of specifi city. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specifi c but easy to use in remote and resource-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities, risk of immune reconstitution infl ammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: HIV, Tuberculosis, India
Subjects: Tuberculosis > HIV - Basic Science
Divisions: Clinical Research
Depositing User: Dr. Rathinasabapati R
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2017 10:08
Last Modified: 25 Mar 2021 10:12

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