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Long term follow up of HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with 6-month intermittent short course chemotherapy

Soumya, Swaminathan and Deivanayagam, C N and Rajasekaran, S and Venkatesan, P and Menon, P A and Ponnuraja, C and Meenalochani, D (2008) Long term follow up of HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with 6-month intermittent short course chemotherapy. National Medical Journal of India, 21 (1). pp. 3-8. ISSN 0970-258X

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Background . Tuberculosis occurs in 60%–70% of HIVpositive persons in India. The outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with 6-month intermittent short course antituberculosis regimens in India is not well described. Methods . This was a prospective observational feasibility study of 71 patients with HIV and tuberculosis who were treated with category I regimen of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide thrice weekly for the initial 2 months followed by rifampicin and isoniazid thrice weekly for the next 4 months). Sputum was examined by smear and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis every month up to 24 months. Chest X-ray, CD4 cell count and viral load were done prior to and at the end of treatment. None of the patients received antiretroviral therapy. Results . We present here the treatment response of patients with sputum culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis to category I regimen. By efficacy analysis, among 43 patients treated with category I regimen, sputum smear conversion was observed in 79% and culture conversion in 82% at the second month. A favourable response was seen in 72% of patients. The mean (SD) CD4% fell from 12.6 (5.9) to 8.9 (4.9) (p<0.001) with no significant change in mean (SD) CD4 cell count (169 [126] to 174 [158]; ns) at the end of treatment. Viral load change from 1.8x105 at baseline to 1.3x105 at the end of treatment was not statistically significant. Thirty-one patients, who completed the full course of treatment, were declared cured and were followed up for 24 months. Twelve had recurrent tuberculosis (39%); 16 of 43 (37%) patients had died by the end of 24 months, twothirds due to causes other than tuberculosis. Conclusion . Though the early bacteriological response to intermittent short course antituberculosis regimen was satisfactory, the overall outcome was adversely affected by the high mortality (during and after completion of treatment) and recurrence rate among HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis. Immune status deteriorated in spite of antituberculosis treatment, highlighting the need for antiretroviral treatment in addition to antituberculosis treatment to improve the long term outcome. The results of this pilot study need to be confirmed by larger studies.

NIRT Creators:
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Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: hiv, tuberculosis, intermittent, patients, chemotherapy, long term, short term
Subjects: HIV
Divisions: Clinical Research
Depositing User: Dr. Rathinasabapati R
Date Deposited: 31 May 2017 09:12
Last Modified: 31 May 2017 09:12

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